Calculus is usually seen as the mathematics of change. It quantifies change by applying two concepts:

  • Derivatives(Differential Calculus): models the rate of change and slopes of curves.
  • Integrals(Integral Calculus): models the collection of change by working on the derivation of formulas to obtain the antiderivatives.

Essentially, optimization is all about finding Extrema of some function, or to be more precise, finding the minima and maxima.