Inferential Statistics

Inferential statistics is a Statistics and Data Analysis method, involving use of sample data to make inferences or predictions about a larger population. It allows researchers to draw conclusions, test hypotheses, and make generalizations based on the analysis of a representative subset of the population.

Tldr

Quantifying properties of a population from a small sample.

tasks such as formulating hypothesis tests, conducting A/B tests, establishing business-oriented metrics, and evaluating acquired data along with experimental results through the application of confidence intervals, p-Value, and alpha values stand as typical illustrations of inferential statistical methodology.


Process:

  1. Hypothesis Formulation: Articulating a research hypothesis or Null Hypothesis to be tested based on the research question or problem being investigated. It uses statistical tests to assess the evidence against the null hypothesis.
  2. Sampling: Selecting a representative sample from the population of interest, ensuring that the sample is sufficiently large and unbiased to provide reliable inferences.
  3. Data Analysis: Applying statistical methods such as t-tests, ANOVA, regression analysis, confidence intervals, and hypothesis testing to analyze the sample data and draw inferences about the population parameters.
  4. Generalization: Using the results from the sample analysis to make inferences, predictions, or generalizations about the larger population, taking into account the level of uncertainty and potential sources of error.

Notes:

  • Inferential statistics is crucial for drawing meaningful conclusions about populations based on sample data, allowing researchers and analysts to make informed decisions and predictions.
  • It is widely used in research, social sciences, healthcare, business, and other fields to test hypotheses, compare groups, estimate population parameters, and evaluate the significance of findings.
  • The validity of inferential analysis depends on the quality of the sampling method, the representativeness of the sample, and the appropriate application of statistical techniques.
  • Understanding the principles of inferential statistics is crucial for interpreting research findings, making evidence-based decisions, and communicating the reliability and implications of the results to stakeholders and decision-makers.
  • Confidence Intervals are used to estimating the range within which a population parameter, such as the mean or proportion, is likely to fall, based on the sample data and a specified level of confidence.